Depends on what argument is most appealing! A messy desk kills your career on one hand, but in the book A Perfect Mess: the Benefits of Disorder, authors argue that neatniks are productivity killers and that the world is an overall better place when a little mess and chaos are allowed to remain.
In my profession where neatness counts is in document delivery and document sharing among peers and especially clients. It may take me extra time to format a document so that font faces, font sizes, even font colors are consistent and not some manic vomitus on the page. (I’ve seen such things). Does it take me extra time? You bet it does. I consider that an investment in detail and emphasis on presentation, respect for others who need to come behind me and consume my work in some form or fashion, whether that consumer is another writer, a project manager, a client, or a developer.
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